Yanditswe na: Ubukungu
Ku ya: 29 / 11 / 2017 | Amakuru y’ubukungu |

Itangangazamakuru ryandika nkuko turizi kugeza ubu ryagiye ritegwa iminsi kuva kera abantu bavuga ko uko ikoranabuhanga ritera imbere rizagera aho rikazimira. Noneho kuva aho internet iziye, abenshi basigaye bemeza ko nta myaka myinshi ibinyamakuru bisigaranye mbere y’uko bizimira burundu. Umuyobozi ushinzwe ibyimari muri Google aherutse kwandika inkuru isuzuma ejo hazaza h’ibinyamakuru nkuko tubizi ubu.

Hel Varian yibajije impamvu ibinyamakuru binyura mu icapiro bigenda bisigara inyuma mu iterambere rigaragara muri iyi minsi cyane cyane mu byerekeye ikoreshwa rya internet. Ese koko internet izatuma ibinyamakuru bizimira?

Ese ubundi ni iki twita ikinyamakuru? Ibintu bine by’ingenzi nibyo bituma inyandiko yitwa ikinyamakuru: kuba yabonywa n’uyishaka, kuba isohoka nyuma y’igihe runaka kandi mu buryo buhoraho, kuba itangaza amakuru ajyane n’igihe kandi kuba itangaza amakuru anyuranye. Iki ni cyo gitandukanya ibinyamakuru n’izindi nyandiko ariko nanone bikaba ari zimwe mu nzitizi zituma ibinyamakuru bigenda bikendera ndetse bamwe bakemeza ko bishobora kuzimira. Abiga ibyitangazamakuru bemeza ko ikinyamakuru cya mbere cyabayeho ari “Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien” cyo mu Budage. Ibinyamakuru bikaba byatangiye gusakara cyane ahagana mu kinyejana cya 17.

Abantu batangiye kuvuga ko ibinyamakuru bizazimira igihe televiziyo zari zimaze gusakara mu bihugu bitandukanye ku isi. Ibi byahinduye uburyo abantu babonaga amakuru binyuze mu binyamakuru bisanzwe. Aho gutegereza umunsi wose, icyumweru cyangwa ukwezi igihe ikinyamakuru kizasohokera, televiziyo yazanye uburyo bwo kureba amakuru mu mashusho no mu majwi kandi mu gihe gito cyangwa se iyo nkuru irimo kuba (live). Uko televiziyo zagiye ziyongera kandi yazanye ubwisanzure mu guhitamo ururimi ushakamo inkuru.

Umuntu yakwibaza impamvu radiyo ikiza itateye izi mpungenge. Kuba radiyo ari amajwi gusa, hari byinshi yakemuye nko kuba umuntu adasabwa kumenya gusoma n’ibindi ariko hari ikintu cyibanze mu gusakaza inkuru kiba kibura: amashusho. Televiziyo uretse kuba itanga amashusho inatanga amajwi bikaba bituma umuntu amera nk’uwibereye aho inkuru yabereye.

Aho internet iziye rero, ibintu byarahindutse cyane. Internet yatanze uburyo bwo gutangaza amakuru mu buryo bwose bushoboka: amashusho, amajwi, inyandiko n’ubundi buryo bwinshi. Internet yanahinduye uburyo abantu bashaka amakuru aho umuntu aba atagitegereza ko ikinyamakuru runaka kimugeraho, televiziyo cyangwa radiyo ngo zize gutangaza inkuru nibamara kuzitunganya. Ubu umuntu afite ubushobozi bwo kubona inkuru ziturutse hirya no hino ku isi bidasabye ko ategereza ko umunyamakuru amara gutegura inkuru.

Ikindi internet yahinduye ni uburyo itangazamakuru rikorwa muri rusange. Ubu buri wese ashobora kuba umunyamakuru, agatangaza inkuru akoresheje mudasobwa cyangwa telefone igendanwa. Kuva aho ikoreshwa ry’imbuga nkoranyambaga (social media) nka Twitter, Facebook, Youtube n’izindi rigenda rirushaho gutera imbere, amakuru yirirwa acicikana ku buryo umuntu aba afite uburyo bwinshi bwo kubona amakuru ndetse no kuyasakaza.

Igitera impungenge ko ibinyamakuru bishobora gucika si uburyo amakuru atangazwa gusa ahubwo ni n’uburyo bw’amikoro. Ibinyamakuru byinshi bibeshwaho n’amafaranga ava mu kwamamaza. Uburyo bikorwa ni uko ushaka kwamamaza agura umwanya mu kinyamakuru hanyuma akishyura buri ncuro itangazo rye ritambutse mu kinyamakuru. Ibi bigenda bihinduka. Kubera internet igera ku bantu benshi kandi mu buryo butandukanye bunihuse niyo abantu basigaye bahitamo kunyuzaho amatangazo yabo yamamaza. Ibi biranahenduka cyane kubera ko ikinyamakuru kiba kibara impapuro iryo tangazo rijyaho kuko uko urupapuro rwiyongeraho niko no mu icapiro bihenda. Internet yo ntabwo ifite icyo kibazo kuko umwanya wo gushyiraho amakuru, amatangazo ndetse n’ibindi byinshi uhari kandi udashobora gushira.

Ibinyamakuru bikomeye byakomeje kwandika ku mpapuro ariko binatangira kugaragara ku mbuga za internet aho usanga inkuru ariho zinabanza mbere yo gusohoka mu icapiro. Ibinyamakuru byinshi kandi biri kugenda bikoresha imbuga nkoranyambuga kugirango bisakaze amakuru kuri benshi ariko no kugirango habeho gukusanya ibitekerezo bituruka mu basomyi n’abandi baba bafite icyo batangaza kuri iyo nkuru. Ubu inkuru iba iherekejwe n’amafoto, amajwi cyangwa amashusho ndetse hari n’uburyo bwo kuyihuza n’izindi bijya gusa ndetse no kuyohereza abandi.

Ibi byose ariko, ni igihe internet yakoreshejwe neza kandi yageze kuri bose. Mu bihugu byinshi bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere usanga internet itarasakara cyane kubera ikibazo cy’amikoro, ubumenyi ariko cyane cyane kuba nta mashanyarazi aboneka ahenshi mu byaro. Ikindi ni uko ikoreshwa rya internet risaba ubumenyi bwihariye busumba gusoma no kwandika ndetse bikanasaba kuba umuntu afite uburyo yagera kuri mudasobwa cyangwa telephone zigendanwa. Izi ni zimwe mu mpamvu mbona internet igifite igihe kirekire mbere yo gukuraho ibinyamakuru mu buryo tubizi uyu munsi.

Ibi kandi si ibibazo byo mu bihugu bikennye gusa cyangwa bitarasakaramo internet ku buryo buri muntu wese yayibona. Ni n’ikibazo cy’imyumvire n’uburyo umuntu aba yarakuze ashaka amakuru. Birumvikana ko iyo umuntu yakuze asoma ikinyamakuru runaka azakomeza kukibonamo isoko y’amakuru yizeye. Birumvikana ko umuntu umaze imyaka asoma ikinyamakuru runaka atazahita abihindura ngo ni uko internet ifite amakuru menshi.

Ariko aho mbona ko internet ishobora gutuma ibinyamakuru nk’uko tubizi ubu bizimangatana ni mu myaka iri imbere aho abazadukomokaho bazahera mu bwana bwabo bakoresha ikoranabuhanga mu byo bakora byose birimo no gushaka amakuru. Icyo gihe bazibagirwa ibinyamakuru bicapye nkuko ubu dusa nk’abibagiwe kaseti na radiyo na videwo, ibyitwaga diskete yemwe na CD zikaba ziri kugenda zigabanuka. Bizatwara umwanya, imyaka ndetse ariko uburyo dusoma amakuru buzahinduka mu buryo butangaje uko n’ikoranabuhanga rigenda rirushaho gutera imbere.

Ba uwa mbere mu gutanga igitekerezo kuri iyi nkuru

Andika igitekerezo cyawe hano

Agaciro k'ifaranga - rwf

     Uyu munsi Ejo hashize     
Ifaranga Rigurwa Rigurishwa Ifaranga Rigurwa Rigurishwa
£ POUND 1124 1147 £ POUND 1124 1147
€ EURO 991.23 1011 € EURO 991.23 1011
$ USD 835.11 851.8 $ USD 835.11 851.8
CAD 659.5 672.7 CAD 659.5 672.7
KES 8.1 8.26 KES 8.1 8.26
TZS 0.37 0.37 TZS 0.37 0.37
RAND 40 50 RAND 30 40
UGX 0.23 0.23 UGX 0.23 0.23
FBu 0.25 0.37 FBu 0.30 0.37
Imigabane Igiciro cyo Hejuru Igiciro cyo Hasi Igiciro Bafungiyeho Ejo Hashize
BK 290 290 290 290
BLR 150 150 150 150
KCB 340 340 340 340
NMG - - 1200 1200
USL 104 104 104 104
EQTY - - 350 350
CTL 67 67 67 67